Gold is highly-prized as a store of value. However,there are factors that leads to a drop or spike in its price. Let’s look at these closely.
Gold is used all
over the world as a store of value. Gold price is oft referenced because it is
continually traded, and this has been so for thousands of years. The spot price
might fluctuate with market conditions, but it is judged as highly valuable
Here, we are going to analyze the nine factors that affect the price of gold for for investors who might be interested in gold trading.
and political factors affect the price of gold because it is considered the
source of geopolitical and economic turmoil. When people lose confidence in
their governments or market, the price of gold tends to rise, and the reassurance
with their situation softens the market price.
The prices of
gold may fluctuate but what you can buy with it remains stable for a long time.
Hence, holding gold is used as a hedge against currency devaluation and
inflation. Investors buy gold for holding when they can project that the value
of their paper money is going to decline.
Value of the U.S. Dollar
The U.S. dollar,
one of the main currencies for international trade, has an inverse relation
with the price of gold. When the gold is strong dollar is weak and vice versa.
Central Bank Instability
When the central
banks and other dominant banks go through a deficit problem, the paper currency
tends to lose its value. Therefore some investors see holding gold as a way to
protect their wealth ,which invariably boosts the demand and price of gold.
interest rates increase, people trade their gold to get funds for other
investment opportunities. When the interest rates decrease, the gold price goes
up again because of low opportunity cost in gold holding compared to other options.
hold gold as a reserve currency along with their paper money. When they buy
more gold than they are selling, this takes the prices of gold higher.
Jewelry and Industry
Not just a
valuable investment but half of the demand for gold is for jewelry from around
the world. India and China have huge gold reserves. About twelve percent of
gold demand comes from its industrial application.
production is about 2,500 metric tons while annual gold supply to the world is
estimated to be 165,000 metric tons. The cost of production can influence the
price of gold. When the production cost rises, miners sells out their gold to
get the benefit.
Supply vs. Demand
economic rule, when the demand for gold in the market increases the prices also
rise high. However, unlike other currencies, the price of gold remains fairly
stable for a long time and the fluctuations might be due to currency fluctuations
or some uncertainties.
Gold will endure
in the realm of men for a long time. With its value and occurrence remaining highly
-prized, you can sure its worth will continue to soar.
IRAs are important as they undergird the future for the working class. What if your IRA company goes bankrupt? What will you do? Read on to find out more.
My Gold IRA company went bankrupt. What now?
It’s a nightmare scenario for
most people, particularly those close to retirement: They’ve made investments
all of their lives to secure a future, but suddenly the company keeping them
says they have no money.
What happens now? Is everything
going to be fine, or have you lost all your savings and have to start over
We’ll start with the good news:
In most cases, your savings will be covered by government-mandated insurance.
Note how we say most.
How insurance works on IRAs
The US government mandates that all IRA accounts need to be covered for at least $250,000. This cover is expected to be used in cases of funds going missing, as could happened during massive disasters.
If your company closes and for some reason your investments aren’t there (but they’re in the books) you should be covered. You should also be covered if your company falls victim to a robbery that funnels its funds, including the retirement funds and investments of its clients.
The $250,000 number is also a baseline – many IRA companies have insurance for two, three, or even ten times that much. Even if it’s a gold IRA, that should cover your IRA savings. Plus, we have a small detail with gold bars: They’re physical, bullion bars that should still be there anyway.
How gold bars make it simple
Any decent IRA provider will also refuse to be the sole custodian. Instead, most gold bars are kept in secure locations under tight government regulation, such as the Delaware Depository.
As long as your gold IRA puts your bars there, you should still have your investment even if the company disappears. Gold, after all, isn’t liquid and can’t be spent by accident, nor would it be at all easy to funnel gold bars from the facilities where they’re stored.
In most cases, what would happen
is that the government would contact you to arrange a transfer of funds towards
different management. Another company would take over, and you would barely
feel the change. Great, isn’t it?
Well, that’s only if the bankruptcy
is due to lack of funds. Things can get much more complicated if there’s fraud
What about IRA fraud?
Most people investing in their
IRA never get to see their shares, valuables, or even savings in physical form.
They just see numbers on a screen or paper representing them, and assume the
company is keeping them safe.
In most cases, companies do keep those things safe and transparently. However, it’s not unheard of for the management of a company like these to get a little bit happy about how funds are managed and on occasion tap onto them. Sometimes, tapping onto them often enough to make the company go broke.
If that’s the case things get a
bit more complicated, depending on your actual standing.
Is your IRA company legal?
This is the question that will drive what happens then. If your IRA company was legally registered with the IRS and followed with its regulations – that is, if the company was legal to the government’s eyes, – you’re in luck.
You should be able to retrieve your investments without more than a headache or two. If you’re a victim to IRA fraud in a company the government considered legal, government-backed insurance will kick in.
It’s more complicated if you put
your money on an unregistered IRA.
Unregistered IRAs are by
definition illegal, and therefore you won’t be covered by any laws that protect
IRA customers in these cases. If you put your money on an unregistered IRA you
have been the victim of fraud, as the money is gone and there’s no insurance to
back it up – nor will there be trustable books to confirm what you had.
In this case, a very long
investigation will likely take place, where the IRS will try to ascertain how
much each of the victims had stolen from them and in what form. If you’re
lucky, they’ll be able to salvage enough from the criminal’s assets to pay you
You’re not likely to get lucky.
In most cases, the criminal will
have either already spent the money or funneled offshore into banks and
investments that can’t be tracked or confiscated. In this case, it’s more
likely than not that you will, in fact, have lost everything.
The takeaway: Avoid IRA fraud at all costs
One of the most important
decisions you’ll make about your finances will be your IRA manager and
custodian, precisely because of this. Your IRA money is only safe if your
company is legal. As such, you must do your homework before signing up with
anyone. Get references. Ask around. Investigate. Even calling the IRS to make
sure the company is in the clear might be necessary.
Do all that, simply because that
will give you peace of mind. Having a properly registered IRA manager will
protect you against anything that could happen with that money. Don’t take
risks with your future, and only put your investments in the hands of people
who have the legal clearance to manage it.
Venture Capitalists can make you dreams come true as a prospective entrepreneur. How different is SoftBank? Read on..
The world of
startups is full of pitfalls, but also filled with investors looking to help
fund the next big thing. Over the last decade, a whole economy has been created
around it – an economy that has produced many successful gadgets, but also many
Softbank is one of the biggest players in this economy, its Vision Fund is one of the most coveted funding sources for startups.
The sheer size of the fund, valued at $100 billion, is said to be disrupting the whole venture capital industry by raising the prices on companies and investments. As such, it’s one of the big hitters these days, yet it’s difficult to understand just why it is so important.
Why is it necessary?
Startup companies, particularly in tech, often face a huge problem from the get-go: funding. It used to be, decades ago, that you could start producing whatever widget you wanted by hand, sell it locally, and slowly expand.
That won’t work
The global economy has shifted, and today, success in tech often requires having a wide reach and mass production. This means that any new venture needs prohibitive amounts of money to begin with, amounts of money regular people don’t really have.
Does it just give you money?
Of course not. While Vision Fund’s funds are big, it isn’t bottomless – and they aren’t a gift, either.
Vision Fund is an investment program, its core philosophy being that it’ll give entrepreneurs the money they need so they can focus on building a successful company without the financial issues they’d otherwise face.
Softbank is known for being a permissive investor, but it’s still a capitalist undertaking – which means a profit is eventually required.
Moreover, Softbank will naturally be entitled to a share of whatever profit your company makes.
therefore, see this funding as a loan of sorts.
What if no profits are made?
One of the big problems of venture capitals is that many companies indeed never make a profit. This is pretty common when companies try to fix problems that aren’t there, thus failing to find a market.
The Venture Capital world is full of poorly planned, ill-conceived gadgets somebody somehow thought were the next big thing that led to millions of dollars wasted.
In theory, investors review proposals and choose those that are the most likely to succeed and help change our world.
In truth, venture capitals are often seen as a way for certain individuals to promise investors everything, deliver nothing, and live like millionaires.
Vision Fund, however, has a method to try and stop this.
Fighting mismanagement with
As usual with venture capital contracts, if your project doesn’t take off, the investors lose their money. That’s also true of Softbank’s fund, and whatever money was spent on getting the company off the ground will be lost.
Just as well, if the company turns a profit first, then it stops doing so, the fund itself will take the hit.
That is true,
however, only for the money that was actually spent on the company.
Softbank’s Vision Fund has a peculiar clause that hopes to fight against venture capital scammers, those who live like millionaires on investor money and then return nothing.
Money spent on management salaries and bonuses can be taken back if the company fails.This doesn’t only extend to the initial investment, but also earnings.
Earnings are divided between the company and Softbank, but if the company stop earning any money soon, managers are expected to pay back a part of the money they took to Softbank.
This makes keeping the company efficient a priority above all things, since results are not just encouraged but expected.
Is this really changing the
It’s still early
to tell. Softbank works in a different way from other funds, since it requires entrepreneurs
to have some skin in the game. They’ll fund projects, but they don’t take the
full cost of a failure – meaning companies receiving funds need to plan around
the idea of having to pay back a part of it.
While the logic
is sound, it also means only people who can take a risk can participate – thus
thinning the eligible startups and offering the services mostly to people who
already have means to begin with and who can take the brunt of failure.
Still, in a world where venture capital is a thing, Softbank Vision Fund has caught many eyes and helped many companies, even when their tactics and clauses are often reviled by others.
The emergence of
venture capitalists like SoftBank really makes the difference. With funding
that can bring the entrepreneurs dream to reality, it is world heralding.
Private equity firms are growing by the numbers in today’s world. What do they do? How can they make a difference? Read on..
Private Equity Firms: What are
The investment market isn’t immune to trends. While most trends come in the form of specific stocks, values, or markets to invest in (for example, cryptocurrencies,) there are always outlier trends, trends that aren’t so much expectations about the market but tricks and methods to optimize investment.
Sometimes, these trends are sold as ways to make people rich quickly with a minimal amount of work.
Private equity firms are one of the trends we see currently. The concept itself has been in the news often, usually blaming them for people getting laid off or praising them for creating new jobs, with most people unable to understand just what equity firms do.
How do these firms work?
A private equity
firm is, to put it simply, a conglomerate of investors who get together to
purchase companies or businesses in a private manner – that is, outside the
stock markets. The earnings these businesses receive (i.e., the equity) is then
divided among those investors who chipped in to take over the company.
Although simplistic, that’s basically how it works: A bunch of people with money get together, pool their money into a private equity firm, and share both the risks and the proceeds of such venture.
Usually, this is done through already existing private equity firms, although it’s not uncommon for individuals to start their own.
Are they good or bad?
everything in business, this will depend on who you ask – and the specific
private equity firm you look into. In theory, a private equity firm taking over
shouldn’t be any different than having a new board of investors for publicly
traded companies. After all, that’s literally what such takeovers mean.
However, the experience many workers have had with these firms is quite different. While it’s no secret that public investors often try to get the most money they can out of businesses, there are two sides to the stock market that keep these attitudes relatively in check.
First, who owns
how much of each company is known. And second, the most valuable companies in
the stock market (say, Amazon or Apple) are mainstays and it’s in the
investors’ best interests to sacrifice short-term gain for long-term stability.
This is not necessarily true of private equity firms. The relative anonymity these firms give allows certain savagely capitalistic players to act in ways that, were they to be made public, would likely damage their images – and those of their companies.
Private equity firms effectively lessen this, because it’s often impossible to know who is behind the company.
There’s a second
issue, although closely related. Private equity firms are known for often
acting in extreme ways once they take over, sacrificing long-term stability for
short-term earnings, often forcing companies to cannibalize themselves and
their own market.
This leads these companies that have been
taken over to end up bankrupt, its employees laid off, all to fill the pockets
of people who already had much more money than the company’s workers.
Is there an upside?
One might argue that the operating strategy that these firms use could lead to better economic development, as many of the pressures of public trading, such as stock price variations, don’t exist.
And that is true. A properly managed private equity firm can indeed help a company, or a whole industry, flourish under the guidance of leading experts.
However, this doesn’t always happen – partly because some of the biggest actors in the market are only in it for the money, with little interest in making things better.
The fact that some firms are there to drive companies to the ground doesn’t mean they all will. Some private equity firms will indeed act in ways that will better the market, and we can hope with time the good companies will outweigh the bad.
IRAs are gaining attention around the globe. How best can you optimize them? That is the subject of this guide.
Best Hacks On Self-Directed IRAs
In order to understand the basic
misconceptions about the IRA, we first need to have a full grasp of what an IRA
is, and what is the major difference between traditional and self-directed IRA.
An IRA or Individual Retirement
Account is a way to save money for post-retirement with tax-free benefits. It
is an investment option designed for building saving funds for the time of your
The concept of self-directed IRA has
been introduced for quite a long time now, but people are still not comfortable
with the idea and have various concerns about it.
There are multiple misconceptions about the
use of funds in self-directed IRA that should be clarified for the better
understanding and benefit of common folks
Self-directed IRA is a magnificent
financial tool that can help you to generate a huge amount of wealth easily and
legally. It opens a huge range of investment options for you that can have huge
valuations for your portfolio.
Traditional VS Self Directed IRAs
There is a very small but major
difference between the two types of IRA. The difference is about the authority
of the custodian about the investment restrictions in either type of IRA.
The custodian has a much more active
role in traditional IRA, and it decides the investment direction of your funds.
It usually allows people to invest only in areas like bonds, stocks, annuities,
and mutual funds, and no other form of investment is welcomed.
Whereas, in self-directed IRA, the
custodian doesn’t have that much active role in investment options. The
custodian’s responsibilities are limited to mainly tax management and allow you
to manage your investments as you desire.
Hence, for self-directed IRA, one can have multiple investment options, in addition to the traditional options, like real estate investment, new start-ups, cryptocurrency, etc.
Self-Directed IRA Misconceptions
Many people have certain misconceptions about the mechanism and processing of the self-directed IRA.
These misconceptions misguide them badly and lead to bad investment decisions and negative financial consequences. So, here we have enlisted all these major concerns to clarify them once and for all.
1. The first misconception is about investment options. As discussed above, traditional IRAs have a limited room for investment options. The reason for the fixed policy is that conventional markets are relatively easier to engage with and monitor compared to alternative options.
For example,cryptocurrency is a very risky investment option that can be unacceptable for traditional IRAs. On the other hand, the self-directed IRA has no such issues and are open to every kind of investment option.
2. The next misconception about self-directed IRAs is that these firms have absolute authority over the money. Whether traditional or self-directed, no IRA firm has any such authority. Their mere responsibility and control are about keeping your money safe.
They can’t invest your money without your permission, and even after investing, you have the authority to cancel their access to your funds.
3. Another common misunderstanding of people is that real estate investments in self-directed IRAs could be used personally. It is not true at all. The only purpose of the IRA-based real estate investment is to make a profit. You can’t use the property or live in it.
4. The biggest misconception of self-directed IRAs is about their legality. The non-traditional investments are generally considered illegal.
Cryptocurrencies, tax liens, venture capitalism, etc. all these are legal forms of investment, where markets are regulated by safety measures and laws.
Uncertainty is at the core of investment. Just because alternative investment options are not widely discussed doesn’t elevate them as riskier than traditional methods.
Real estate is the safest investment option while cryptocurrency is volatile but not overly risky.
Even in traditional investment options like bonds
and stock, uncertainty is inevitable. The more you concentrate on one specific
market the higher the risk will be. In any investment market, the simple and best
way to avoid risk is diversification.
The self-directed IRA makes you more empowered concerning your fund investment.
You have more liberty to make more money compared to traditional methods by adopting alternative ways.
Take advantage of the greater options and the possible gains available for you and get benefited excessively in your future.
To become a successful entrepreneur requires the development of vital traits that can make the difference. Learn more..
Though there is
no hard and fast rule to success it can be achieved through hard work and
simply following the common habits, characteristics, and qualities of the
There are generally six common habits or qualities that I have sorted out here. With every quality, I am going to give you an example of who and how it has benefited others to be the best they can be.
Arianna Huffington is one the biggest examples of persistence, who after repeated rejections didn’t stop trying to get her second book, ‘After Reason’, published.
She had been rejected by almost 36 publishers at the age of 23 before she finally got it published. She didn’t stop here and ran for governor of California in 2003 but dropped out of the race soon after seeing only 2% support in her favor.
But she learned
from this incident how vital the power of the internet is while running the
fundraising campaign. As a result, she launched HuffingtonPost.com, 2 years
later, which she sold to AOL.com for $315 million ultimately in 2011.
A successful entrepreneur understands the importance of failure. Rejections and failures are the signs to keep pushing forwards instead of stopping due to failure.
They provide you with learning experiences and serve as steppingstones towards success. Being persistent despite the hurdles is the most rewarding experience for entrepreneurs.
2.Forever Learning and Self-Improvement
The CEO of SpaceX and Tesla Motors, Elon Musk, is famous for being a fast learner.
He declared in an interview that before starting the corporation, he spent a lot of time in reading as many books as he can about rocketry and propulsion to learn about building rockets. In an interview on Reddit, he compared knowledge to a semantic tree.
He stressed that
it is important to understand the fundamental principles of the tree like the
trunk and big branches before going into the details like leaves, otherwise
without basics or the branches, there will be nothing for leaves to hang on to.
Even after all
the success with PayPal and Tesla, Elon knew that he would have to learn all
about the rockets and rocket propulsion system to become the competent leader
of a space flight company.
A feedback loop is very important for constant success. It allows you to think about what you have done, how you have done, and how you could have done it.
Constantly question yourself and get the chance to become better. A successful entrepreneur always strives for knowledge. They know that no matter how successful they are, or how much knowledge they have gathered, there is still room for more success and personal growth.
One of the
greatest risk-takers of all times is Bill Gates, who risked his future at the
age of 20 by dropping out of Harvard to co-found his software company, Microsoft.
Bill Gates writes that in business and even in real life, you need to take big risks to achieve great success. A big risk can either mean big success or a big failure. Now if we look back, the success of Microsoft seems inevitable, but it wasn’t the case at that time.
At that time, it was the biggest risk of all to start the first personal computer software firm, and everyone thought it is going to be a huge failure.
To be a successful entrepreneur you need to look the potential to take your business to rise heights. What are the potential risks that you are afraid of? What could they benefit you and your business?
The best way to overcome these fears is to get exposure. Surround yourself with other risk-takers and people who encourage you to move forward, rather the ones who discourage and think you would fail.
During 2008’s massive recession, when Starbucks was at the brink of failure, Howards Schultz’s leadership helped them to get out of the crisis.
Talking about his leadership techniques and what helped him to revive Starbucks, he mentioned that according to his views, leadership is something which has to be decisive, where you need to be ready to take decisions without having perfect information.
The core of
leadership is transparency and truthfulness. You don’t need to be vulnerable
all the time but there are times when you have to share your mind with people
to tell them what you are and what you think, without being afraid.
Leadership is about being decisive and implementing things that will lead to the betterment and success of our business.
If you also have other people as employees, then being a leader you also have to explain to them the logic of your decisions. Taking initiative and responsibility are two main things that you can start with to develop leadership skills.
5.Hustle and Incredible Work Ethic
Oprah Winfrey, the host of The Oprah Winfrey Show, while working hard for the show was not afraid to take on other projects. She worked in about 12 movies and cameos, many other TV shows, documentaries, and even movies.
She kept on appearing in and working on several other projects while keeping her main TV show among the top-rated and winning various awards for it.
Even after the end of the show in 2011, she continued to be a media tycoon by owning her own television network, a channel, a website, a magazine, an XM satellite radio channel and various movies and TV show cameos.
There is no big
secret to success. It only comes to you when you are willing to go for it and
work hard to get successful. Oprah worked hard to build up her personal brand.
She managed to appear at every channel without compromising the quality of her
It is up to you how you manage to expand your brand on business and can put it on how many platforms. It is time to get activated and bring awareness to your business and brand.
Do not be passive and wait for opportunities to come towards you. Work proactively in the market for your product and make a name there. No one can help you to be successful but you.
In 1996, when
Steve Jobs came back to the declining corporation of Apple, what he noticed was
that the organization had lost its main focus. By the next year, he reduced the
product line from 350 to 10 key products.
management had caused the company to spread a lot but became too thin. I was
very tough for Steve Jobs to focus and kill off various products and projects
of the organization. In a conference in 1997, Steve Jobs stated that focusing
is no about saying yes, rather about saying no.
A successful entrepreneur knows that the business must not be spread to limits that would make the corporate so thin and feeble that it will lose focus from the originality of the brand.
Keep yourself focused on the original vision of your organization. The only way to do that is to keep things simple. Try to make fewer but quality products, rather making dozens of okay products.
You don’t need
to focus on all of these qualities altogether. Adopt one or more that applies
to you and start working to improve your business today.
ETFs belong to a growing sphere of investment that hugs the headlines in financial markets around the globe. Here are important strategies for trading in them.
ETF Strategies for Traders
ETFs usually track
the bonds, stocks or index, and other securities. These can be extensive market
indexes like Nasdaq or Bloomberg Barclays US Aggregate Bond Index, targeted
regional indexes, or niche indexes.
ETF might have hundreds of securities in their portfolio that tend to create prompt diversification to help in reducing the risk, as compared to owning individual stocks.
There is also some chance to further expand by structuring a basic portfolio with multiple ETFs. Each of these ETFs will hold a different type of security across asset classes.
ETF adoption is
growing fast due to being a tax-efficient mode to continue with your investment
ideas and through providing a low-cost and flexible mean to enter the potential
of the markets.
At the start of the 21st century, the ETF assets were even less than $100 billion. Now, by 2018 the ETF assets have exceeded $4.7 trillion around the world and are still increasing its number of products.
Let’s have a
look at each of its characteristics in detail.
First of all, you
need to determine what you are looking for. Whether you are a retiree that is
shopping for funds to have some speedy source of income, or you are a
Millennial who has just switched his job and now trying to find a way to roll
over your assets so that they could help them after retirement.
There are almost
1800 ETFs that are enlisted in the US, and BlackRock’s ETF business, iShares
have about 300 to offer just in the US, and more than 800 around the world,
which represents a huge range of geographical regions and asset classes.
You have the option
to select an ETF portfolio that is most suitable for you, your passion and your
Do you want to
reflect your value through your money? With viable iShare ETFs, you don’t need
to go against your personal beliefs while investing.
For example, if you are an environmentalist,
you can always invest in companies dedicated to providing positive
environmental, governance and social business practices.
Or if you want to
invest in some long-term future-shaping forces, like rising technology, various
ETFs are there offering collaboration with companies that work in technological
advances and also working to shape our global society and economy.
Investing in mutual
funds that are being actively managed can be a bit costly as their professional
asset managers and all the researching staff has to be paid for their working
and the decisions they make.
usually charge a very small amount of fees. It can be said that iShares ETFs
charged fees in on average, one-third of an active mutual fund, and still they
generate half the tax compared to the average of an active mutual fund.
The value keeps
adding up. By 30 years, hypothetical investment of $10,000 made in an active
open-end mutual fund with a fees of 0.96%, the monthly assistance of $1,000 and
an expected compounded rate of 8% for return, will be likely to grow to an
amount of $1.2 million and is going to lead to $270,000 in the fees.
Keeping every other
calculation same for an ETF charging 0.34% fees, it will be likely to rise up
to $1.4 million and leading to just $100,000 in fees.
Get in the game without any hassle. One of the major benefits of ETFs is that you can sell and buy them all day round, similar to stocks. What you need for that is just a brokerage account.
For a mutual fund, you need to buy and sell typically through a mutual fund broker. You will get your reimbursement three days after you place your order, but according to the net value of the asset of the day when you placed your order.
But with ETFs, you don’t need to wait that long. Markets are open all the time and you can sell out whenever you want and get you to cash at the moment.
For some mutual
funds, there is a limitation of buy-in or minimum amount that you have to
invest. But there is no such limitation with ETFs. Buy your shares just as you
buy stocks for individual companies without any minimum share. If you can
afford the share price, you can buy it without any condition.
make ETFs for young investors worth considering. You can also use ETF as a
modern-day gift to cherish major events in your life like wedding, graduation,
iShares ETFs gives
you the opportunity to choose from various options and make the most suitable
choice to assist in your needs, with the transparency and assurance that you
are getting right value for your money and investing in the easiest way that
But look at the
bigger picture, you can use the iShares ETFs not only to help you to reach the
goals of your life but also assist you to keep up with your personal passions.
in Investing, Including the Risk of Loss
social, and governance investment strategy restricts the form and frequency of
the investment choices available to the fund. It usually results in
underperformance of the fund as compared to other funds that do not focus on
The ESG strategy of
fund results in major investments in the industry of security fields that lead
to overall market underperformance or underperformance of other funds that are
selected for ESG standards.
Those funds that
tend to concentrate their investments in specific sectors, industries, asset
class or market might underperform or can be more volatile compared to other
sectors, industries, asset classes or markets than the general securities
Technology companies tend to be more affected by product obsolescence and excessive competition. ETFs as well as shares’ transaction lead to commissions of brokerage and ultimately generate tax. Every investment company has to distribute portfolio returns to shareholders.
The fees related to funding investment are not just borne by the investors in individual bonds and stock. The investment comparisons are only for explanation. To have a better understanding of the differences and similarities between investments one must read the product prospectuses.